Site is loading image

Key Instructional Concepts

Learn about the essential concepts and terms related to research-based reading instruction, including what structured literacy is and how it works in the classroom.

Illustration of Reading Universe Taxonomy on laptop at desk

Photo by: Duke and Duck

The Reading Universe Taxonomy

Our taxonomy is a scope and sequence for teaching all the skills needed for fluent reading. This interactive tool shows how the major skills are connected — including word recognition, language comprehension, reading comprehension, and writing — and breaks the instructional process down into manageable pieces. Use it as a roadmap for ensuring students get all of the necessary, research-backed skills.

Use the Taxonomy

Research-Based Reading Instruction Explained

Understand key concepts and strategies related to structured literacy.

What Is Structured Literacy?

The research-based approach ensures students get the skills they need with no gaps.

Read Our Explainer

What Is Word Recognition?

Skilled reading involves instant and effortless recognition of words. To get there, students must learn to break the alphabetic code.

Learn More

What Is Orthographic Mapping?

Skilled adult readers have typically "mapped" between 30,000 and 60,000 words into their sight word vocabulary.

See the Article

The Three Learning Disabilities in Reading

Children with reading disabilities may struggle with decoding, comprehension, or a combination of both. Learn about the three disabilities and how they're related.

Find Out More

How to Use Decodable Texts

Decodable texts are simple passages or books made for beginning readers that serve a specific purpose: letting students practice reading text with the phonics patterns they know.

Learn About These Texts